Air pollution. This includes carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced by industry, motors, waste burning, fires, war and other sources. Photochemical ozone and smog are created when NOx and hydrocarbons react in sunlight. CO2 emissions affect climate change. Particulate matter – dust, smoke and chemicals – hangs over urban areas and circulates worldwide in the jetstream, dropping on land and water, altering chemical balances in nature and affecting weather conditions over long distances.Soil contamination derives from pesticides, fertilisers, spilled, leaked or dumped chemicals, agricultural slurry and air and rain pollution. The biggest contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides, plastics, chlorinated hydrocarbons and bacteria. Once this happens, soil integrity and biodiversity break down and never fully revive.Water pollution comes from commercial and industrial discharges and spills (chemicals and heavy metals), untreated sewage (organic and chemical discharges), treated sewage (chlorine, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, detergents and microplastics), urban rainwater runoff, air deposition, agricultural contaminants (pesticides, fungicides and fertilisers), waste dumps, paint, wood preservers, suntan lotion and multiple other sources, affecting rivers, lakes, oceans and aquifers. Organic and phosphate discharges from industrial farming and meat production cause algal blooms, ocean eutrophication and dead zones near the mouths of big rivers. Water courses and oceans have been permanently changed in chemical balance and biodiversity. Even after clean-up, mercury, arsenic, radioactive particles, phosphates, radionuclides and more are permanently deposited in riverbeds and on ocean floors.Radioactive contamination comes from nuclear power, nuclear accidents, dumps, past weapons tests and hospitals – and it is long-lasting. Nuclear detonations in the 1950s still affect us now.Electromagnetic radiation pervades the atmosphere: you are bathed in it. It is intense indoors and in cities, around transmitters, power lines and microwave beams and from buried power supplies. The introduction of 5G, smart meters, the internet of things and driverless vehicles will amp this up immensely. EM is transmitted through rainwater, rivers and aquifers as well as in the air and through anything metal (mattress bed springs, keys, coins, vehicle, train and aircraft bodies). Bizarrely, hospitals are among the worst EM environments. Much of the research on its effects is unreliable and dishonest, left to ‘big wireless’ companies with a stake in the business. Medical reporting on its health effects is scanty (brain tumours, nervous and immune system problems). Research on its effects on nature, the atmosphere and weather is thin and disregarded. When proper objective research and public awareness eventually emerge, the public response is unpredictable because the useful technologies spreading this invisible pollutant cannot easily be phased out.Plastics range from bottles, bags, condoms and fishing nets to microplastics, clothing particles and disintegrated plastic items. Even biodegradable plastics are harmful – their constituents disintegrate but do not disappear. An estimated 8m tons of plastics enter the oceans every year, particularly from Asia. The faunal death rate from entanglement and contamination is high, and microplastics are now known to be inside fish, sea mammals and humans, suspended in aquifer water and mixed into soil and sand. Plastics float in huge quantities in ocean gyres, in the Mediterranean and China Sea, and they blow across the most remote of wildernesses. We breathe plastic particles and eat leached chemicals from food packaging on a daily basis.Litter. Packets, cigarette butts, cans, bottles, dumped waste and metal scrap. Cigarette butts are deposited at a rate of 5.6tn per year globally. They take five years to decompose and for the carcinogens, pesticides and nicotine in them to disperse into the environment.Tech waste (e-waste) is produced at a rate of 50m tons per year. It contains lead, barium, cadmium, dioxins, heavy metals and other ingredients, often in complex and microscopic forms that are currently unrecyclable. Your mobile phone is a box of concentrated contaminants.Fisheries pollution, mainly from discarded fish waste and fish farms, spreads bacteria and viruses, harming living fish and birds with rotten, infected and contaminated food.Thermal pollution comes from power plants and industry, cities and heating systems, affecting water and air temperatures, mainly in densely-populated and industrial areas.Light pollution not only obscures the moon and stars but it affects animal behaviour and plant growth – worst in developed countries and areas with dense populations.Noise pollution affects animal communication and plant growth. Undersea noise (ship engines, drilling, wind turbines, sonar) affects fish and cetacean communications. Ambient noise on land (industry, motor vehicles, fans, aircraft, tractors) affects human stress and health levels.Visual pollution has a depressing and de-sensitising effect, negatively affecting social behaviour and attitudes toward the environment. It includes transmitters, advertising, unsightly surfaces and shapes, poor architecture, industrial sites, waste dumps, scarred land and obscured panoramas. Visual inputs are an important form of human and animal nourishment.Indoor pollution includes smoke, particulates, chemicals, static electricity and electromagnetic radiation, nowadays exacerbated by heat insulation, wi-fi and electronics.Invasive species. This happens largely in connection with trade and deliberate introduction. It includes plants, insects, animals, fungi and viruses that overcome native species by competing for nutrients, space, light, water or food. This affects biodiversity and ecosystem adaptability. When invasive species overwhelm indigenous species, the effect is negative overall, though invaders do in some cases improve biodiversity too.
Air pollution https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollutionWater pollution https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pollutionSoil Contamination https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_contaminationRadioactivity https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_contamination